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环球视讯:【媒库文选】美国人在向西移动——也在向城市移动

环球视讯:【媒库文选】美国人在向西移动——也在向城市移动

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参考消息网12月6日报道

Americans Are Moving West —But Also Toward Cities

美国人在向西移动——也在向城市移动

Philip Bump 菲利普·邦普

Every 10 years, the Census Bureau conducts a national tally of the population of the United States. Then, a few months later, it releases a particularly interesting little bit of trivia: where the center of the country's population can be found.

Think about it like this. Back in 1780,there were no states west of the Mississippi,so everyone lived close to the East Coast. The state with the largest population was Virginia, but the largest city was New York (as it always has been). So the midpoint of the country's entire population in 1790 was calculated as sitting just northeast of Virginia — on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay.

As the country expanded to the west,so did the country's population center. And so it was that on Tuesday the Census Bureau revealed a new average population center in southern Missouri.

The Bureau made a nice little map showing the progression of the population center since the country's founding. In some states, there hasn't been much movement. In others, there's been a lot. But there's a pattern that emerges. If we simplify the movement from the first population center to the most recent, that pattern may become more obvious.

Do you see it? The movement over time has been toward cities. In Illinois, the population center keeps shifting toward Chicago. In California, it's moving toward Los Angeles. In Nevada, toward Las Vegas. In New York,toward New York City. In Washington, toward Seattle. In Florida, toward Miami.

This is largely about the imbalance in population between urban and rural areas. America is increasingly urban as rural areas tend to see population declines. So, decade by decade, population centers shift toward cities in states where there's one particularly large urban center.

The graphs miss some of the nuance of the movement. Zoom in on Florida. Above, I pointed out that the state's population center had shifted toward Miami over time. But in the past two censuses, it shifted back north,heading back toward Orlando.

The fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States over the past decade was just outside Orlando: The Villages, a retirement community in Sumter County. This was one of the other key findings of the census. The U.S. population is getting older not just literally but on net, and places like the Villages are expanding in population as a result. That aging also contributes to the speed at which the population center is moving to the west.

Overall, the centerpoint of the American population is some rural point in the middle of Missouri. But the story within states is different, however obvious it might be: people have been moving toward density.

普查局每10年会对美国的人口进行一次全国性统计。几个月后,它会公布一个特别有意思的小细节:在哪里可以找到国家的人口中心。

参考消息网12月6日报道

This is like buying land in Manhattan 250 years ago as the city is being built.”

“这就像250年前在曼哈顿城池初建时置办土地。”(美国《华尔街日报》网站)

——据Tokens.com首席执行官安德鲁·基格尔介绍,现在最火的房地产市场是在元宇宙。游戏玩家蜂拥而至,数字房地产价格看涨。Tokens.com是一家加拿大投资公司,日前花费250万美元在虚拟世界Decentraland的时尚区购买房产。(张伊宇编译)

参考消息网12月6日报道

With best friendship there tends to be intimacy, a feeling that the other person is there for you, that they have your back. It's about perceived support rather than actually showing up.”

“牢靠的友情往往离不开亲密感,就是感觉到对方在你身边、随时守护着你。关键是让人感觉到支持而不是真正在场。”(英国广播公司网站)

——英国萨塞克斯大学心理学讲师丽贝卡·格雷伯谈到儿童如何交朋友。她认为儿童对信任的要求更高,不仅仅是在一起玩耍,而是要完全互相信任。(张伊宇编译)

参考消息网12月6日报道

I already have a devil on my shoulder at the end of a run-out who whispers, ‘uh oh, you're gonna take a big one!’”

“一段长距离无保护攀登结束时已经有个恶魔在我耳边小声说‘哎哟,你一定能拿大奖!’”(美国《纽约时报》网站)

——英国著名登山者汤姆·利文斯通讲述自己每次登山的心路历程。他曾于2019年获得法国金冰镐奖,这是全球登山界含金量最高的奖项,有“登山届奥斯卡”之称。(张伊宇编译)

参考消息网12月6日报道 自上世纪90年代初以来,气候正义一直是气候变化领域的一个重要议题。在前不久落幕的《联合国气候变化框架公约》第二十六次缔约方大会(COP26)期间,名为“全球气候正义行动日”(Global Day for Climate Justice)的活动在11月6日吸引约10万人冒雨走上大会主办地英国格拉斯哥的街头。

世界各地的人们正以不同的方式经历气候变化,现实情况是,受害最大的往往不是对气候变化负有最大责任或从导致气候变化的碳排放(carbon emission)中获益最多的人。

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这就造成了当前的气候“非正义”(injustice)。富裕工业化国家几百年来一直在肆意燃烧大量化石燃料,但最容易受气候变化所害的却是贫穷国家。一些群体受到了格外大的影响,包括土著群体(indigenous people)、有色人种(people of color)、女性和残障人士(the disabled)。备受关注的还有“代际非正义”(intergenerational injustice):年长世代长期以来从化石燃料中获益,却让年轻世代去面对气候变化的最严重后果。

“背锅侠”自然不好当,因此他们呼唤正义。气候正义运动的根本诉求就是与气候变化有关的利益和负担得到公平分配(fair distribution)。(李莎)

参考消息网12月6日报道 美国前总统特朗普最近又对woke这个词开火了。他在亚拉巴马州的一次集会上说:“你知道woke意味着什么吗?意味着你是个废物。Woke的一切都成了狗屎。”现场民众一片欢呼。

让我们先搞清楚woke是什么意思?Woke原本是wake(醒来,唤醒)这个动词的过去式,在非裔美国人的语言习惯中最早被当做awake(清醒的,觉醒的)的替代词来用。但这些年它有了复杂的新含义。Woke generation是指“警醒的一代”吗?是,但又远不止于此。这个词在不同语境中传达的微妙态度需要细细体味。

Woke作为形容词流行起来始于上世纪30年代,表示“对与种族相关的歧视和偏见保持警觉”的意思。但并未进入主流英语语境,仅限于在黑人群体中小范围使用。2014年,美国黑人迈克尔·布朗被警察射杀事件掀起抗议浪潮,stay woke(保持警醒)这个标签一时红遍社交媒体,意在呼吁人们关注警察枪杀黑人现象。随后,woke的含义进一步扩大,并于2017年作为形容词被录入牛津英语词典。

然而,就在woke这个词进入主流英语之后不久,它的感情色彩却发生了微妙的变化。

参考消息网12月5日报道 凛冬将至,新冠疫情似有反弹迹象。Winter is coming,可结合语境译为凛冬将至,或凛冬来临。英语中的现在进行时除了表示正在发生的事情,还可以表示即将发生的事情。凛冬将至——相信喜欢美剧《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)的读者都不陌生。Winter除了表示冬天,还可以表示逆境,跟冬天在中文里的含义类似。字典里的解释为a period like winter; a period of decline, dreariness, or adversity。

凛冬将至,全球疫情形势并不乐观。国内陆续出现零星疫情,各地正积极推进新冠疫苗加强针(booster)接种工作。Booster,为延续或增强疫苗药性额外施打的一剂药,也可以说booster dose,或booster shot。Boost(促进,推动)是动词,加上后缀-er变成名词booster(支持者,助推器,辅助药剂),在新冠疫苗的语境下,自然是指加强针。

Shot(注射)是名词,动词形式为shoot。表示注射的另一个常见的词是jab,既可作动词,又可作名词,本义是刺、戳,在口语中表示注射。国外一些地区在一些行业推行强制疫苗接种政策,即“No jab, no job”,不接种就没有工作,不接种就下岗。

参考消息网12月5日报道

“Getting together is worth it. Getting together and sharing meals, and sharing life. We're just not made to live in isolation.”

“团聚是值得的。聚在一起,一起吃饭,聊聊家常。我们不是为独居而生的。”(美联社)

——尽管美国科罗拉多州在感恩节前出现疫情反弹,但来自该州利特尔顿的乔斯林·拉古辛一家还是决定在感恩节举办大型家庭聚会,不在乎家庭成员是否接种疫苗。(何娟编译)

参考消息网12月4日报道

“When things happen, it always depends on what you do once it happens. I realize history has seized us here. Reading history books 10 years from now, it will be about this place.”

“事情发生时,关键是你在它发生时怎么做。我明白,在这里,历史找上了我们。10年后再读历史,书上一定会记载这个地方。”(美国《时代》周刊网站)

——近日美国佐治亚州非洲裔男子艾哈迈德·阿伯里被枪杀一案有了判决结果,枪杀阿伯里的三名白人男子多项杀人罪名成立。案件发生地不伦瑞克市市长康奈尔·哈维认为,该案将被美国历史所铭记。(何娟编译)

参考消息网12月4日报道  

How Obituaries Got a Jolt of New Life in the Internet Era

讣告如何在互联网时代焕发新生

Paul Farhi 保罗·法尔希

Once a sleepy corner of journalism, obituaries have found new life in the Internet era. A well-crafted obit for a prominent figure — blending history and biography, triggering nostalgia or perhaps even the reader's own feelings of mortality — can attract enormous readership online. And now there's a need for speed: The obit that comes out first, or at least fast,can win the day.

The New York Times has 1,850 such obits idling in its computer system, according to William McDonald, the newspaper's obituaries editor; The Washington Post has about 900 on hand,said its obituaries editor, Adam Bernstein.

Baby boomer nostalgia has stoked some of the interest in the lives and deaths of the famous, said Hillel Italie, an Associated Press reporter who has written obituaries of leading cultural figures. Older readers have “a growing awareness of their mortality and sensitivity to the passing of those who helped define their lives,” he said, citing the hunger for news about the August death of Rolling Stones drummer Charlie Watts at 80.

But the untimely deaths of younger celebrities are a proven draw as well: One of the most-read obits in The Washington Post's history was that of actress Brittany Murphy, who died suddenly in 2009 at the age of 32. The September obituary for actor Michael K. Williams,54, racked up 2.8 million views for the New York Times.

The Post's first obituaries editor, J.Y. Smith, wrote so many advance obits that his name continued to appear in the newspaper more than a dozen years after his death in 2006,including on the obituaries of former president Gerald Ford and former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet. As Smith himself lay dying in a hospice,he made one request of Bernstein: “Don't let them screw with my [Fidel] Castro obituary!”(Written more than two decades before Castro's death, it was periodically updated and published a decade after Smith's.) The Post's obituary for Colin Powell, which published upon the former secretary of state's death last month, was written 12 years ago by former staff writer Bradley Graham, shortly before he left The Post in 2009.

外文全称:Sandra Mason

中文译名:桑德拉·梅森

背景介绍:巴巴多斯11月30日正式脱离英联邦成为共和国,桑德拉·梅森宣誓就任该国首任总统,取代英国女王伊丽莎白二世成为新的国家元首。梅森生于1949年,2018年起担任巴巴多斯第8任总督。

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